We support our customers with innovative measurement solutions for product development. Our measurement technology is used in many areas and at all stages of development. Especially in the area of high-voltage safe measurement technology, we were able to develop new solutions together with our customers. In the following we present a selection of possible applications of CSM measurement systems.
Thermal runaways in the HV batteries of electric and hybrid vehicles can lead to fires that are difficult to extinguish and endanger passenger safety. Extensive testing is required to ensure that HV batteries are designed safely with suitable protective mechanisms. In this application example you will learn how the necessary temperature measurements can be carried out at many points in the battery.
The thermal characterization of high-voltage batteries requires precise temperature measurements down to cell level with a large number of sensors. Only with precise insights in the thermal behaviour of battery cells and the whole system further optimization can be performed. With the HV DTemp measurement system, temperatures on the cell level can be measured with up to 512 sensors on only one sensor cable.
High-voltage batteries play a central role in the development of electric vehicles. Temperature management is one of the key factors for their optimal function, which is why temperature measurements are carried out under different conditions during development and pre-series production. The following example shows how such a temperature measurement can be realized in the high-voltage battery.
Being able to charge e-vehicles worldwide is an important goal in the development and improvement of components involved in charging processes. National differences in power grids as well as individual characteristics of the charging devices are the main challenges. During the prototype development of a new e-car with a modified on-board charger (OBC), international charging processes and their repercussions on the power grids had to be investigated in detail using measurement technology. In particular, the HV Breakout Module (HV BM) 3.1 OBC from CSM was used for this purpose.
To save valuable space, components in the electric power train are becoming more compact and integrated. At the same time, this limits the space for installing measurement technology needed for current and voltage measurements in the busbars of integrated e-axles, inverters or HV batteries. Precise measurement results for testing, validation and verification are thus difficult to achieve. This example shows how high-frequency measurements can be carried out in busbars despite the confined space available.
In the high-voltage electrical system of electric vehicles, high-frequency currents and voltages are measured during test drives. The space required for installing the necessary measurement technology can be very limited due to tightly installed components and cable ducts. This application example shows how currents and voltages can nevertheless be measured with high sampling rates, HV-safe and protected from environmental influences.
Fuel cell-powered vehicles are a complement to pure battery electric-powered vehicles in electromobility. An electrochemical reactor is used to generate electrical energy that is available for the drive and other vehicle systems. The interaction of this reactor in the fuel cell stack with the other components in the powertrain is tested on test benches. In this example, you will learn how the necessary measurements are carried out simply and synchronously.
The everyday use and acceptance of electric vehicles depends on the widespread availability of charging facilities. Various charging concepts are required for the expansion of the charging infrastructure and are being tested in detail by the operators of charging station networks. High-voltage safe current and voltage measurements must be carried out at many points. The following example shows how this can be done.
The high-voltage cables of the high-voltage vehicle electrical systems in modern electric vehicles are exposed to strong current and voltage ripples, which induce currents in the braided shields. If these shield currents exceed the capacity of the braided shield, cable fires and damage to connected accessories are the result. To ensure the safety of the system, extensive measurements of the shield currents are necessary.
The high-voltage electrical system in electric and hybrid vehicles is validated at all stages of development and extensively tested for series production release. CSM HV Breakout Modules are particularly suitable for these validation and acceptance measurements in accordance with the ISO 21498-1 and -2 standard because they can be used directly in the HV cables of the vehicle electrical system.
In the European Union, consumption values for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles must be measured for type approval according to the WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure). This also applies to electric vehicles (battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles), for which the electric range is also determined. This example shows how the electrical energy consumed and the range per charge can be determined according to the WLTP.
Electric vehicles have two, three or even four electric motors in their powertrain. The interaction of the inverters and electric motors is tested in the early development phase in order to fine-tune the motor control. For this purpose, extensive performance analyses are carried out on the test bench and in the test vehicle. This example shows how an easy scalable measurement setup can be used to perform the necessary performance analyses in real time.
The optimal design of inverters is necessary for increasing the range per charge and performance of electric vehicles. The inverter is the link between the battery and the electric motor and plays an important part in the electric powertrain. This application example shows how power and efficiency calculations are performed on the inverter and how the measurement setup can easily be expanded for further measurements.
Electric powertrains have to be tested during many development phases. The overall efficiency is an important parameter for further optimization. In this application example, you can learn how the overall efficiency of fully integrated electrical powertrains is calculated in real time.
New tests for electric vehicles and their components are intended to ensure the safety of passengers and systems and are a basic requirement for approval on various markets. One example is a drop test for high-voltage batteries, which is mandatory for verification for the Korean market. The following example shows how the necessary acceleration measurements inside and outside the high-voltage battery are performed during the drop test.
The housings of HV batteries not only serve to protect the battery cells and electronics inside them, but are also a structural part of the vehicle frame. Mechanical loads must be measured for an optimal housing design - inside and on the outside of the housing. This example shows how the necessary measurements are made easily and safely with strain gauges and strain gauges measurement modules.
Validation testing is often needed when extensive design updates are made to the vehicle system. In these cases, all important vehicle parameters are tested under a wide range of operating conditions. The following example shows how such tests are performed on forklifts that incorporated new engine options.
Offering long ranges for electric cars is one of the biggest challenges for vehicle manufacturers. The decisive factor here is the total energy consumption of the vehicle. Often, only the consumption of the electric powertrain is considered, but: How much does the low-voltage vehicle electrical system, which includes driver assistance systems and infotainment, contribute to discharging the drive battery? For competitive analyses, the currents of these components were therefore examined in more detail: Around 100 CSMshunts of different variants were used for benchmarking an e-SUV.
In order to further optimize efficiency and driving comfort, automobile manufacturers are using integrated starter generators (ISG) in mild hybrid vehicles. Fast current and voltage measurements are crucial for the optimal application of this technology. CSM offers the suitable measurement technology to perform measurements with high data rate and also in mobile testing.
To further minimize fuel consumption, the fuel supply must also be regulated according to demand. The recording of current curves on the fuel pump control unit over a long period of time is intended to verify whether its fuse is correctly dimensioned. In the following application report you will learn how such a measurement can be carried out easily and how the advantages of CAN and EtherCAT-based measurement modules can be combined.
During the development of the electric power train for electric vehicles, voltage and current characteristics at the AC phases of the electric motors must be recorded and analyzed. The HV Breakout Modules are particularly suitable for this purpose, as they measure required values extremely quickly, synchronously and precisely.
The range of electric vehicles determines their suitability for everyday use and acceptance by users. For a steady increase in range, the electric power trains and their components must be continuously optimized. The following example shows how an efficient power measurement in the low-voltage range is carried out. Similarly, such a measurement could also be made in the HV range.
Motorsport places the toughest demands on man and machine; and also on the measurement technology that is indispensable for development. ABT Sportsline, together with Audi and Schaeffler, has used CSM's measurement technology in Formula E to obtain precise data during the development and testing of the racing cars. Find out in the following application report where CSM measurement technology was used.
At Daimler Truck in Wörth (Germany), new trucks are being developed to production readiness. In road tests, the forces and torques acting on the rotating wheel are precisely recorded using the Kistler KiRoad Performance system. At the same time, CSM measurement technology is used to measure up to 200 analog channels in order to be able to make statements about the mechanical loads in the components. With the KiRoad Performance Gateway, which was developed specifically for this project, the measurement data from the various systems can be synchronously acquired and evaluated.
Along with the shift from combustion engine drives to electromobility, the question arises of where the electricity will come from to run e-motors in vehicles in the future. One idea: solar panels integrated into the vehicle to charge the battery. For this purpose, a fleet of solar-powered test vehicles has been developed as part of Sono Motors' Sion program. CSM accompanied the integration of the necessary measurement technology for acquiring the mechanical loads and the electrical power of the powertrain for one of the vehicles.
Optimization of electric and hybrid vehicles often focuses on components in the electric powertrain. However, to increase range and efficiency, a perfect balance of weight and stability is required for numerous components. This compromise is particularly challenging for heavily stressed components such as the chassis. This application example shows how the measurements for durability analyses are carried out on tie rods and axle control arms.
Mechanical stresses and their direction must be determined for the structural design of many components with experimental stress analyses. The exact knowledge of the structural load-bearing capacity is particularly relevant for the development of components on construction machines that are later subjected to heavy loads. This application report shows how CSM measurement modules accurately measure stress at numerous locations during repeatable experimental stress analysis on telescopic crane booms.
UniCAN 3 Data Logger
Intense sunlight and high temperatures mean stress for vehicles and components, and yet they are part of everyday life in many regions of the world. In order to test proper function under various conditions, cars are therefore driven worldwide by end customers in long-term tests during advanced development phases. During a fleet test of electric vehicles in Asia, very high ambient temperatures of more than +50°C were encountered. For the analysis the measurement results had to be reliably recorded despite the high load for the measurement technology used. With the UniCAN 3 data logger from CSM, the test could be carried out without loss of function or interruptions.
In addition to changes in current, voltage and power measurements, electric powertrains also bring new challenges for acoustics: The HV electrical system and its assemblies, new materials and the elimination of masking noise sources require a holistic view of acoustics and performance parameters. This application example shows how a harmonized measurement system can be used to acquire and analyze the necessary measured values.