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Use Cases
Use Cases

Safe Drop Test Measurements for HV Electric Vehicle Batteries

New tests for electric vehicles and their components are intended to ensure the safety of passengers and systems and are a basic requirement for approval on various markets. One example is a drop test for high-voltage batteries, which is mandatory for verification for the Korean market. The following example shows how the necessary acceleration measurements inside and outside the high-voltage battery are performed during the drop test.

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Drop tests must be carried out to ensure that HV battery packs do not explode or catch fire in the event of an accident. International standards differ from each other in this respect and stipulate, for example, different drop heights, battery charge levels and surfaces that the pack hits.

Region International USA Korea China
Standard SAE J2464 SAE J2929 UL 2580 USABC FreedomCAR KMVSS 18-3 QC/T 743
Drop Height (m) 2 ≥ 1 1 10 ≥ 10 4.9 1.5
Surface Flat Surface Concrete Cylindrical Steel Object Concrete Wood
Battery Charge Level (in %) 95 - 100 Maximal 100 80 100

Tab 1: Comparison of international standards for a drop test of HV batteries (November 2019 - subject to correction)

In this example, a drop test is performed according to the Korean "Korea Motor Vehicle Safety Standard" (KMVSS): The specified drop height is 4.9 meters, from which the battery pack with a state of charge of 80 % shall hit a concrete surface.

Measurement task

Synchronous measurement of accelerations inside and outside a high-voltage battery during a drop test.

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During the drop test, the acceleration has to be measured at various points inside and outside the battery in order to record the acting forces. The sensor data from the accelerometers inside the battery must be recorded in a high-voltage safe manner and synchronously with the values measured on the outside of the battery. In order to register even small dynamics of the acting forces during fall and impact, it must be measured with a high measurement data rate.

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The CSM Measurement Solution

  • Unwanted interference due to long cable lengths is minimized by placing the entire measurement equipment at half the height of fall (approx. 2.5 meters).
  • Inside the battery pack, standard uniaxial accelerometers designed for low voltage applications are connected to the HV-safe HV-IEPE sensor cable. This is led out of the battery via PG glands and connected to a measurement module HV IEPE3 FL100. This measurement module was specially developed for the use of IEPE sensors in HV environments and acquires the data with up to 100 kHz data rate per measurement channel.
  • Acceleration measurement on the outside of the battery pack is performed with additional accelerometers, whose signals are acquired by the AD4 ECAT IE100 measurement module. This module permits a measurement data rate of 100 kHz for the acquisition of the acting forces.
  • Both measurement modules are synchronized with an XCP-Gateway basic, using the Distributed Clock method integrated in the Ethernet standard. As an interface to the data acquisition software, the XCP-Gateway also converts the signals to the XCP-on-Ethernet standard.
  • The data acquisition software used isvMeasure from Vector Informatik. vMeasure allows an easy integration of the CSM measurement modules, thus making it easy to set up the measurement chain.
Drop Test Measurement in E-Mobility Measurement System
Presentation of the drop test measurements in the systematics of the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System
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With this measurement technology solution, the drop test can be carried out and the forces acting in the process can be recorded precisely and synchronously. The combination of measurements of conditions inside and outside the battery pack in a single measurement chain has enormous advantages in terms of synchronization and subsequent evaluation of the data.

Thanks to the CSM safety concept and high-voltage safe measurement technology, it is also possible to use standard sensors designed for low-voltage applications.

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