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Use Cases
Use Cases

Experimental Stress Analysis on Crane Booms

Mechanical stresses and their direction must be determined for the structural design of many components with experimental stress analyses. The exact knowledge of the structural load-bearing capacity is particularly relevant for the development of components on construction machines that are later subjected to heavy loads. This application report shows how CSM measurement modules accurately measure stress at numerous locations during repeatable experimental stress analysis on telescopic crane booms.

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Precise information on maximum loads, operating conditions and life cycle are essential for the safe use of construction machinery. For this reason, individual parts are also extensively tested in special test centers. In this example, experimental stress analysis is performed on six crane booms using strain gauges. On the basis of the data acquired, simulations are checked and the capacity and live cycle of the booms are determined.

Measurement task

Measurement of mechanical stresses for the verification of simulations.

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The measurement technology used should allow an uncomplicated and fast testing process for all six crane booms. The measurements themselves should of course be very accurate in order to obtain the desired results. In order to be able to measure strains as accurately as possible, the data from many strain gauges must be recorded synchronously and each at a data rate of at least 200 Hz per channel. Since loads are applied to the booms to the point of material fatigue and short-term peaks are also to be recorded, it must be possible to scale the measuring range sufficiently.

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The CSM Measurement Solution

A parallel sequence of preparation of the test specimens and execution of the measurement halves the time required. This is possible because in this example measurement technology for a total of 96 strain gauge measurement channels is used. This means that one part of the measurement technology can be used for configuration, while the other part is used on the test bench.


  • 48 strain gauges are applicated to measure the strains. Most if the strain gauges can be applied as single sensors, because the location and direction of the main stress is known from the simulation data. Only at the expected neutral position, three strain gauges are applied as a rosette to record the stress profiles.
  • All strain gauges are connected to the measurement modules with specialized cables. The CSM strain-gauge-sensor-cables have an integrated half-bridge completion near the sensor. The full bridge is completed within the CSM measurement modules. By this the sensors can be easily connected.
  • STG6 BK20 /HE strain gauge modules acquire the data from all 48 sensor gauges simultaneously. They convert the voltage output from the strain gauge into a measured strain. Thus the measurement channel sends the measurement value as μm/m, and immediately facilitates the analysis of the data.
  • All modules are connected to a XCP-Gateway, which synchronizes all module signals and converts the data to XCP-on-Ethernet for easy connection to vMeasure.

The Test

  • After applying all the strain gauges and cables, the crane boom is transported to the test facility on an open space.
  • The test specimen is clamped in position at one end, the other end is inserted into a special rig, which is lifted by a crane to induce the load.
  • The test is done until material failure. The high bandwidth of EtherCAT® means all measurement points can be recorded time-synchronously, with data rates from a few Hz to 20 kHz per channel.
  • When one boom is in place for testing, the next boom is being prepared. This provides for a seamless process and improves efficiency of the test facility.
Experimental Stress Analysis in E-Mobility Measurement System
Presentation of the experimental stress analysis in the systematics of the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System
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Due to the compact and robust design, the CSM measurement modules allow a parallel sequence of preparation and testing, as they can be easily transported to the test bench with the test specimen. The high bandwidth of the EtherCAT® measurement technology allows a time-synchronous acquisition of measurement data of up to 20 kHz, which enables precise analyses. This allows precise statements to be made about the need for optimisation and later possible applications of the crane booms.


Here you find the complete application report for download as PDF.

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