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Use Cases
Use Cases

WLTP Power Measurement of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles

In the European Union, consumption values for new passenger cars and light commercial vehicles must be measured for type approval according to the WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicles Test Procedure). This also applies to electric vehicles (battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles), for which the electric range is also determined. This example shows how the electrical energy consumed and the range per charge can be determined according to the WLTP.

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Background

For the WLTP, specific driving cycles (WLTC - Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle) were defined in which the respective measurements are carried out. These driving cycles specify certain speed profiles that are intended to provide a more realistic picture of the energy consumed than previous tests.

Driving cycles are performed on test benches until the HV batteries are discharged. This makes it easy to determine the range for battery electric vehicles. For plug-in hybrid vehicles, the electric range is determined in relation to the total range: The last cycle run is completed with the battery completely discharged and the amount of energy required for complete charging is then measured. Based on the amount of energy consumed and the range driven, the energy requirement can be calculated in kWh/100km.

Measurement task

Current and voltage measurement for analysis of the energy consumed and range determination in defined driving cycles.

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Challenge

For precise analyses, the currents and voltages must be recorded with high temporal resolution. However, it is not possible to determine consumption directly from the raw data - ideally, the energy must first be calculated in real time according to the speed specified in the WLTC. Once the values have been determined on the test bench, it should also be possible to check them easily in real test drives.

Drive cylce WLTC Class 3
Drive cycle according WLTC class 3
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The CSM-Solution

The solution for this measurement task is found in the perfectly harmonized Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System, which combines precise measurement modules and powerful software.

  • A HV Breakout Module (HV BM) 3.1 measures current and voltage between the charging station and the On-Board-Charger (OBC) at a data rate of 1 MHz and 100% synchronous. For this purpose, the HV BM is simply inserted in the power cables. In this way, the amount of energy consumed when recharging the battery can be determined.
  • Current and voltag between the battery and the inverter are measured with a HV Breakout Modules (HV BM) 1.2. This module also allow phase-accurate measurements with data rates of up to 1 MHz.
  • A XCP-Gateway 4S pro collects the data of the HV breakout Modules. The EtherCAT® signals are converted to XCP-on-Ethernet with up to 1 GBit/s.
  • With the eMobilityAnalyzer, the energy is calculated in real time during the drive cycles and during the charging process. In the function "DCAnalysis" the working power P and the cumulative consumption W are calculated. The "ChargerEfficiencyAnalysis" function is also used to determine the losses from the charging process.
WLTP Measurement in E-Mobility Measurement System
Presentation of the WLTP power measurement in the systematics of the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System
Speed profile for the class- 3 driving cycle (green), current I (red) and battery voltage U (blue)
Speed profile for the class- 3 driving cycle (green), current I (red) and battery voltage U (blue)
Power P (red) and energy consumption W (green) of a plug-in hybrid vehicle according to WLTP drive cycles
Power P (red) and energy consumption W (green) of a plug-in hybrid vehicle according to WLTP drive cycles
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Benefits

With the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System, the electrical consumption values can be easily determined - on the test bench and in road tests. The direct measurement of current and voltage in the HV lines also increases accuracy and enables precise analyses. The measurement setup is also extremely compact, which saves time for setting up the measurement chain.

Download

Here you find the complete application report for download as PDF.

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