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Use Cases
Use Cases

Power and efficiency analysis of an electric powertrain

Electric vehicles have two, three or even four electric motors in their powertrain. The interaction of the inverters and electric motors is tested in the early development phase in order to fine-tune the motor control. For this purpose, extensive performance analyses are carried out on the test bench and in the test vehicle. This example shows how an easy scalable measurement setup can be used to perform the necessary performance analyses in real time.

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In powertrains with several electric motors, the fine-tuning of power electronics and motors poses a challenge to achieving optimum performance. For the design, extensive measurements are necessary to determine the characteristic and performance values. The performance analyses can be used to verify whether the motor management system executes the control of the electric motors as expected in the various driving situations, e.g. during the rapid changes of acceleration, braking and regeneration.

Furthermore, energy measurements and the analysis of efficiency maps validate the development and range targets.

Measurement Task

Synchronous acquisition of physical values (current, voltage, torque, speed, temperatures) and ECU data for real-time performance analysis.

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The measurement system for measuring and analyzing the desired performance parameters must be easily scalable in order to be quickly adapted to the specifics of the power train. All physical variables and the data from control units must be recorded in one system in order to be able to perform accurate analyses with synchronous measured values.

The analyses must be calculated in real time in order to be able to detect direct error reactions. The raw data should also be recorded for precise analysis afterwards. In this way, any problems that occur can be investigated in greater depth at a later date.

The instrumentation should be usable on the test bench and later in the test vehicle. In this way, the results of the test bench analyses can be directly compared with real driving data.

Leistungsanalyse in E-Mobility-Messsystem
Power and efficiency analysis of an electric powertrain in the systematics of the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System
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The CSM Measurement Solution

With measurement modules and other components from the Vector CSM E-Mobility Measurement System, the numerous measurement variables required can be acquired and the parameters precisely analyzed.

  • High-voltage Breakout Modules (HV BM) 1.2 measure current and voltage between the battery simulator and the inverters with a data rate of 1 MHz. For this purpose, the HV BM is simply installed between the cables. The cables are fed into the interior of the module via cable glands.
  • The High-voltage Breakout Modules (HV BM) 3.3 measure current and voltage between the inverters and the electric motors. The power measurement circuit is already applied in the module, eliminating the need for later conversions and corrections. The sampling is performed with 2 MS/s each.
  • A CNT evo MiniModule acquires the measurement data from speed-torque sensors. Due to its compact design, the module can be installed close to the measurement point and EMC interference that could affect long sensor cables is avoided.
  • The temperatures in inverters and electric motors are measured with HV-safe temperature measurement modules HV TH4 evo. with the measured temperature values, the operating temperatures in specific load conditions can be monitored.
  • All measurement modules in the measurement setup are connected via EtherCAT® and CAN to High-voltage Breakout Modules (HV BM) 3.3. The HV BM 3.3 function as gateway, synchronize the measurement data and convert it to XCPoE.
  • Internal measurement variables of the power electronics are synchronously acquired via a Vector network interface VX1000. These measurement values and the external measurement data are synchronized via the "Precision Time Protocol (PTP)".
  • Efficiencies are calculated in real-time in the eMobilityAnalyzer function library for Vector vMeasure or CANape. The internal measured variables can be directly correlated here with the calculated efficiency values.
HV BM 3.3
HV BM 3.3 are used to measure the currents and voltages between inverters and electric motors. In addition, the HV BM 3.3 function as gateways for all other measurement modules in the setup.
HV BM 1.2
The HV BM 1.2 measure the currents and voltages between HV battery (or the simulator) and the inverters.
MiniModules are used to acquire additional measured values (temperatures and rotational speed). Thanks to their compact design, they can be easily installed in the test vehicle and on test bench.
Analysis with the eMobilityAnalyzer
Power analysis of a ten-minute test run on the test bench with CANape. The calculated electrical quantities such as active, reactive and apparent power and the calculated mechanical power are listed numerically at the bottom left.
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The decentralized design of the E-Mobility Measurement System makes it easy to instrument test benches and test vehicles with measurement technology. Instrumentation and measurements in component and powertrain test benches are identical to those in test vehicles on vehicle and chassis dynamometers.

A multi-channel power analysis is easy and time-saving to install in powertrains even with several electric motors, for example in all-wheel drive or utility vehicles. If, for example, a four-motor all-wheel drive is to be analyzed, the measurement configuration can be doubled. The power analysis can then be performed on 4 engines and 4 inverters simultaneously. This means that even the most complex powertrains can be measured.

Electrical power measurement is performed via HV Breakout Modules and CANape or vMeasure. Power analyzers and measurement racks are not necessary. Complex, interference-prone cabling between current sensors and power analyzers is eliminated. The installation time of the measurement system is significantly reduced. Sources of error in the cabling of the measurement circuit are eliminated.

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